- Armament and disarmament
- Conflict and peace
- Peace and development
Exclusion by ethnicity, gender, geography or other identity can be a source of grievance, a driver of conflict and an underlying structural obstacle to progress. Where exclusion is structural or systemic, it can be difficult to identify and reverse, as the very actors that create or perpetuate exclusion often have incentives to ignore it. Societies with a legacy of exclusion often find social cohesion lacking and distrust horizontally (between groups in the society) and vertically (between state and society).
SIPRI’s research on gender, marginalization and insecurity uses a variety of lenses—gender, ethnic identity and geography—to better understand how exclusion leads to conflict, grievance and lagging development outcomes. Research is designed to advance understanding of how inclusion can contribute to peace and development.