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EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Papers

Implementing the 2021 Recast of the EU Dual-use Regulation: Challenges and Opportunities

In 2011, the European Union (EU) launched a review of its regulation establishing controls on exports of dual-use items. This began a process involving the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the EU that led to a recast of the regulation which enters into force on 9 September 2021. This paper examines the main underlying concerns that drove the review and recast process: exporters’ regulatory burden, uneven national implementation, exports of cybersurveillance items and advances in emerging technologies.

Effective and Comprehensive CBRN Security Risk Management in the 21st Century

The multifaceted nature of security concerns related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in the 21st century requires a novel organizing principle for the international multilateral efforts focusing on the prevention of the hostile misuse of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) knowledge and materials.

A Proposal for a Ban on Destructive Anti-Satellite Testing: A Role for the European Union

International fora have pursued space security regulation with little progress. The European Union (EU) has been proactive in this regard by advocating a multilateral code of conduct for outer space activities, however, it failed to survive negotiations. Further concrete measures to strengthen space security on a multilateral scale have been slow, as states are polarized on the subject of weaponization in outer space. Among threats to space security, destructive anti-satellite (ASAT) testing has emerged as a particularly destabilizing force.

The Arms Control–Regional Security Nexus in the Middle East

The erosion of the 2015 Iran nuclear agreement poses a risk for both Middle East regional security and the global nuclear non-proliferation regime. At the same time, it highlights the need to build a more sustainable regional foundation for conflict resolution and arms control in the Middle East. This paper argues that the arms control– regional security nexus should be better reflected in European policy.