The independent resource on global security

Backgrounders

Multilateral peace operations in 2021: Developments and trends

Dr Claudia Pfeifer

Ahead of the International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers, SIPRI is releasing new data on multilateral peace operations in 2021. This topical backgrounder summarizes the key findings from the latest data and some of the most important developments in the year.

Organized environmental crime: Why it matters for peace operations

Dr Marina Caparini

Organized environmental crime has become one of the fastest-growing types of organized crime. In many conflict-affected contexts, it is the primary source of financing for non-state armed groups. In the light of this, how can peace operations and other multilateral actors respond to conflicts which are driven or sustained by activities that involve illegal exploitation and trade in natural resources?

Child development and resilience in war, conflict and displacement

Dr Jonathan Hall and Abeer Ahmad

Approximately 452 million children were living in a conflict zone in 2020, and almost half of the roughly 80 million forcibly displaced people worldwide are children. Many of the countries most affected by conflict are developing countries with a young and growing population.

A matter of speed? Understanding hypersonic missile systems

Kolja Brockmann and Dr Markus Schiller

This SIPRI Topical Backgrounder seeks to improve the understanding of hypersonic speed, the nature of hypersonic missile systems, as well as their key subsystems and technologies.

SALW-related assistance to states in sub-Saharan Africa: Hitting the target or missing the mark?

Mark Bromley, Giovanna Maletta and Ruben Nicolin

This Topical Backgrounder presents recommendations for both future research and steps that could be taken by states, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international organizations to improve the coordination and effectiveness of SALW-related assistance efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

The Missile Technology Control Regime at a crossroads

Kolja Brockmann

The Missile Technology Control Regime is a cornerstone of states’ efforts to control the development, proliferation and use of missiles and other unmanned delivery systems. However, it faces serious structural, operational, membership and technology-related challenges that call for new initiatives and a strengthening of the regime’s resilience.

Time to factor missile defence into nuclear arms control talks

Dr Tytti Erästö and Matt Korda

Hopes run high that the possessors of the world’s largest nuclear arsenals—Russia and the United States—might finally resume negotiations on nuclear weapon reductions after over a decade of diplomatic deadlock.

20 years of US military aid to Afghanistan

Dr Nan Tian

This SIPRI Topical Backgrounder presents data on the military aid given by the USA to Afghanistan between 2001 and 2020.

Multilateral peace operations in Afghanistan between 2001 and 2021

Dr Claudia Pfeifer and Dr Jaïr van der Lijn

This SIPRI Topical Backgrounder gives an overview of the four multilateral peace operations that were active in Afghanistan between 2001 and 2021. It presents SIPRI data on the number and categories of international personnel deployed in each operation, drawn from the SIPRI Multilateral Peace Operations Database.

Transfers of major arms to Afghanistan between 2001 and 2020

Alexandra Kuimova and Siemon T. Wezeman

This SIPRI topical backgrounder gives an overview of known international flows of major arms to the Afghan armed forces between 2001 and 2020.