The independent resource on global security

Backgrounders

Multilateral peace operations in Afghanistan between 2001 and 2021

Dr Claudia Pfeifer and Dr Jaïr van der Lijn

This SIPRI Topical Backgrounder gives an overview of the four multilateral peace operations that were active in Afghanistan between 2001 and 2021. It presents SIPRI data on the number and categories of international personnel deployed in each operation, drawn from the SIPRI Multilateral Peace Operations Database.

Transfers of major arms to Afghanistan between 2001 and 2020

Alexandra Kuimova and Siemon T. Wezeman

Twenty years of United States-led international military presence in Afghanistan ended on 30 August 2021, with the withdrawal of the last foreign forces.

Social media: A tool for peace or conflict?

Dr Simone Bunse

Human rights activists have used social media technology to organize peaceful protests and defend democracy for more than a decade. More recently, peacebuilders have discovered it can be a tool to understand conflict dynamics and counter extremism better.

Estimating world nuclear forces: An overview and assessment of sources

Hans M. Kristensen and Matt Korda

The nuclear weapon inventories of the nine-nuclear armed states—the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, Israel and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea)—are largely shrouded in secrecy: only three of the nine states have ever publicly declared the size of their nuclear stockpiles and in recent years there has been a notable shift towards a lower overall level of nuclear weapon-related transparency.

Multilateral peace operations in 2020: Developments and trends

Timo Smit

Ahead of the International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers, SIPRI is releasing new data on multilateral peace operations. This topical backgrounder summarizes the key findings from the latest data and some of the most important developments in 2020.

Arms transfers to conflict zones: The case of Nagorno-Karabakh

Pieter D. Wezeman, Alexandra Kuimova and Jordan Smith

The conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh escalated in 2020 into a six-week war in which an estimated 5700 people died.

Why United Nations peace operations cannot ignore climate change

Dr Florian Krampe

On 23 February the United Nations (UN) Security Council will hold an open session on the topic of climate change and security. The security implications of climate change are highly diverse, crossing and linking different sectors of society.

Reassessing SIPRI’s military expenditure estimate for the United Kingdom

Dr Nan Tian and Dr Lucie Béraud-Sudreau

In November 2020, in the midst of the ‘second wave’ of COVID-19 and despite a projected

European Union sanctions on North Korea: Balancing non-proliferation with the humanitarian impact

Kolja Brockmann

The international sanctions regime against the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea, DPRK) is the strongest and most comprehensive set of sanctions currently in effect against any one country.

Autocracy is on the rise: Should we expect military spending to follow?

Dr Diego Lopes da Silva

Autocracies are once again the global majority.