- Armament and disarmament
- Conflict, peace and security
- Peace and development
1996 was notable for peace settlements in
the Philippines, Sierra Leone and Guatemala, but progress was
slow in for example the Middle East, Northern Ireland, and Bosnia
and Herzegovina. Africa, especially Liberia, Sudan and the Great
Lakes Region, and an arc of instability around the Russian periphery
remained the most troubled regions and those most targeted by conflict
prevention, management and resolution efforts.
The UN continued to be prominent in peace
efforts although the Security Council was still reluctant to launch
new initiatives, even in desperate situations like those of Burundi
and Zaire. UN peacekeeping consequently continued its dramatic
decline. With the remaining large-scale UN operations all due
to end in 1997, the post-cold war era of large, multi-component missions,
aimed in effect at nation-building, appeared to be over. The
largest extant mission in 1996 was the NATO-led IFOR and its successor,
SFOR, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The UN's leadership crisis ended
with the appointmentof Kofi Annan as the new Secretary-General.
By the end of 1996 the UN could look forward to less uncertainty,
reform and improved financial health.
Regional organizations worldwide continued
to struggle to create the capacity to deal with potential and
actual conflicts in thei rown areas. Competent subregional organizations
are slowly emerging.
Appendix 2A. Multilateral peace missions, 1996
Appendix 2A presents a table of multilateral
peacekeeping operations in 1996.