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SIPRI Yearbook 1991

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SIPRI yearbook 1991 cover
Oxford University Press

The SIPRI Yearbook 1991 contains SIPRI's review of the latest developments in nuclear weapons, nuclear explosions, world military expenditure, debt and international security, the international arms trade and arms production, chemical and biological weapons, the military use of outer space, the proliferation of ballistic missile technology, major armed conflicts, US–Soviet nuclear arms control, and conventional arms control in Europe, and presents the unique annual calendar of military activities required by the 1986 Stockholm Document. Efforts to control the arms-race—in nuclear, chemical, biological, conventional and space weapons—are described, and the status of negotiations and agreements is analysed.


This latest SIPRI Yearbook also contains special studies on the fourth Review Conference on the Non-Proliferation Treaty, on new institutions for the Conference in the Iraq–Kuwait conflict in 1990, and on the military mobilization in the Persian Gulf War. Its comprehensive coverage makes it an invaluable sourcebook for anyone seeking authoritative, factual information on issues of armaments and disarmament and thus for anyone interested in strategic studies, peace studies, and international relations.


Introduction: From the known past to the unknown future

Walther Stützle


Part I. Weapons and technology

1. Nuclear weapons

Robert S. Norris, Richard W. Fieldhouse, Thomas B. Cochran and William M. Arkin

2. Nuclear explosions

Ragnhild Ferm

Appendix 2A. Nuclear explosions, 1945–90

3. Military use of outer space

John Pike

Appendix 3A. Military satellites launched in 1990

4. Chemical and biological warfare: developments in 1990

S. J. Lundin and Thomas Stock


Part II. Military expenditure, the arms trade and armed conflicts

5. World military expenditure

Saadet Deger

Appendix 5A. Tables of world military expenditure, 1981–90

Saadet Deger and Somnath Sen, assisted by Phitsamone Ljungqvist-Souvannavong

Appendix 5B. Sources and methods

6. Debt, financial flows and international security

Somnath Sen

7. The trade in major conventional weapons

Ian Anthony, Agnès Courades Allebeck, Gerd Hagmeyer-Gaverus, Paolo Miggiano and Herbert Wulf

Appendix 7A. Aggregate tables of the value of the trade in major weapons with the Third World, 1971–90

Appendix 7B. Register of the trade in and licensed production of major conventional weapons in industrialized and Third World countries, 1990

Ian Anthony, Agnès Courades Allebeck, Gerd Hagmeyer-Gaverus, Paolo Miggiano and Herbert Wulf

Appendix 7C. Sources and methods

8. Arms production

Herbert Wulf

Appendix 8A. The 100 largest arms-producing companies, 1989

Ian Anthony, Agnès Courades Allebeck, Gerd Hagmeyer-Gaverus, Paolo Miggiano and Herbert Wulf

9. Ballistic missile proliferation

Aaron Karp

10. Major armed conflicts in 1990

Karin Lindgren, Birger Heldt, Kjell-Åke Nordquist and Peter Wallensteen


Part III. Developments in arms control

11. US–Soviet nuclear arms control

Regina Cowen Karp

12. The implementation of the INF Treaty

Stephen Iwan Griffiths

13. Conventional arms control in Europe

Jane M. O. Sharp

Appendix 13A. Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe

Appendix 13B. Vienna Document 1990 of the Negotiations on CSBMs convened in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Concluding Document of the Vienna Meeting of the CSCE

Appendix 13C. Implementation of the Stockholm Document and calendar of planned notifiable military activities in 1991

Axel Krohn

Appendix 13D. The Vienna Military Doctrine Seminar

Axel Krohn

14. Multilateral and bilateral talks on chemical and biological weapons

S. J. Lundin and Thomas Stock

Appendix 14A. Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Destruction and Non-Production of Chemical Weapons and on Measures to Facilitate the Multilateral Convention on Banning Chemical Weapons

15. Multilateral and bilateral efforts towards nuclear test limitations

Ragnhild Ferm

Appendix 15A. Excerpts from the protocols to the Threshold Test Ban and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions treaties


Part IV. Special features

16. The fourth review of the Non-Proliferation Treaty

David Fischer and Harald Müller

17. New security structures in Europe: concepts, proposals and decisions

Adam Daniel Rotfeld

Appendix 17A. Joint Declaration of Twenty-Two States

Appendix 17B. The Charter of Paris for a new Europe

Appendix 17C. Treaty on the final settlement with respect to Germany

Appendix 17D. Declaration on US–EC relations

18. The role of the United Nations in the Iraq–Kuwait conflict in 1990

Brian Urquhart

Appendix 18A. UN Security Council Resolutions on the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

Appendix 18B. Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter

19. Military mobilization in the Persian Gulf conflict

Barry R. Posen

20. The SIPRI 1990 Olof Palme Memorial Lecture: 'Third World interests in the new era of East–West relations'

Oscar Arias Sánchez



Annexe A. Major multilateral arms control agreements

Ragnhild Ferm

Annexe B. Chronology 1990

Ragnhild Ferm