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SIPRI Yearbook 1985

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SIPRI yearbook 1985 cover
Taylor & Francis, London and Philadelphia

The SIPRI Yearbook 1985 continues SIPRI's analyses of the world arms races, based on annual series of data on the nuclear weapons possessed and planned by the major powers, on world military spending and R&D expenditure, arms production, the arms trade, chemical and biological weapons and the military use of outer space. Efforts to control the arms race are described, and the status of negotiations is analysed.


In addition to regular features and statistics, there are chapters on third-generation nuclear weapons and 'Star Wars' weaponry, a review of the Soviet literature on the 'nuclear winter', on the militarization of Africa over the past decade, on military-related debt problems of the developing countries without oil reserves and on the conflict in Afghanistan. Conscientious objection to military service and the relevance of the Sinai peace experience to the observance of the military activity in central Europe as a confidence-building measure are both subjects of special studies.




Frank Blackaby

Appendix A. Public opinion

Eymert Den Oudsten


Part I. The nuclear arms race

1. Nuclear weapons

William M. Arkin, Andrew S. Burrows, Richard W. Fieldhouse, Thomas B. Cochran, Robert S. Norris and Jeffrey I. Sands

2. Nuclear explosions

Ragnhild Ferm

Appendix 2A. Nuclear explosions, 1983 (revised data for the USA) and 1984 (preliminary data)

Appendix 2B. Nuclear explosions, 1945–84 (known and presumed)

3. Third-generation nuclear weapons

Kosta Tsipis

Appendix 3A. The X-ray laser

4. Global consequences of a nuclear war: a review of recent Soviet studies

A. S. Ginsburg, G. S. Golitsyn and A. A. Vasiliev

Appendix 4A. Nuclear winter: a bibliography

Arthur H. Westing


Part II. Space weapons and CBW

5. The military use of outer space

Bhupendra Jasani and G. E. Perry

Appendix 5A. Space weapons

Appendix 5B. Tables of satellites launched in 1984

6. Chemical and biological warfare: developments in 1984

J. P. Perry Robinson

Appendix 6A. An analysis of the reports of Iraqi chemical warfare against Iran, 1980–84


Part III. World armaments

7. World military expenditure and arms production

Michael Brzoska, Gerd Hagmeyer-Gaverus, Evamaria Loose-Weintraub, Elisabeth Sköns, Rita Tullberg and Gordon Adams

Appendix 7A. Tables of world military expenditure, 1975–84

8. Military research and development expenditure

Mary Acland-Hood

9. Militarization in Africa

Robin Luckham

Appendix 9A. Inventory of military government, armed conflict and external military intervention in post-colonial Africa

10. Arms production in the Third World

Herbert Wulf

11. The trade in major conventional weapons

Michael Brzoska and Thomas Ohlson

Appendix 11A. Aggregate tables of the value of the trade in major weapons with the Third World, 1965–84

Appendix 11B. Register of the trade in major conventional weapons with industrialized and Third World countries, 1984

Appendix 11C. Register of licensed production of major conventional weapons in industrialized and Third World countries, 1984

Appendix 11D. Criteria, values and conventions

12. Military-related debt in non-oil developing countries, 1972–82

Rita Tullberg

Appendix 12A. Definitions and methods


Part IV. Developments in arms control

13. Multilateral arms control efforts

Jozef Goldblat

Appendix 13A. UN General Assembly resolutions and decisions on disarmament, 1984

14. Major multilateral arms control agreements

Jozef Goldblat and Ragnhild Ferm

15. The first year of the Stockholm Conference

Karl E. Birnbaum

Appendix 15A. Notification of military manoeuvres in 1984, in compliance with the Final Act of the CSCE

16. The Sinai peacekeeping experience: a verification paradigm for Europe

David Barton

Appendix 16A. Second Sinai Disengagement Agreement, Egypt and Israel, September 1, 1975

Appendix 16B. Treaty of Peace between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the State of Israel


Part V. A conflict study: Afghanistan

17. The conflict in Afghanistan

Jean-Christophe Victor

Appendix 17A. Treaty of Friendship, Goodneighbourliness and Cooperation between the U.S.S.R. and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, 5 December 1978

Appendix 17B. UN General Assembly resolution 39/13: The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security, 21 November 1984


Part VI. Conscientious objection

18. Conscientious objection to military service

Peter Whittle

Appendix 18A. The recognition of conscientious objection

Appendix 18B. Document of international bodies ruling on conscientious objection

Chronology of major events related to arms control issues

Jozef Goldblat and Ragnhild Ferm